Newari Music: Aerophones


MuhaliMuhali is a conical bore shawm, which is played only by Jugi (Kusle) caste. Jugis are given Khanki (land) for playing Muhali in various occasions. There is a tradition to play Muhali everyday in Phalchas, i.e. roofed rest places, which tradition is also known as Siwa Yayegu. Muhali accompanies Dhah, Dapha Khin, Paschima, Nagara and others. Muhali solo is played in Digu puja.

Bansuri (Flute)

Bansuri is a woodwind instrument which accompanies mainly Paschima, Dapha Khin or Koncha Khin. Basuri are of three kinds: Ghor, Majhawala and Teep, producing low, middle and high tones.


Baya resembles Bansuri but they are different in construction and playing techniques. Baya accompanies mainly Koncha Khin. Koncha Khin and Baya are played in marriage procession.


Also known as Payantah, Ponga is a long wind instrument made of brass. Pongas are made by Tamoh or Tamrakar (Newar Coppersmith). It accompanies Kwatah Khin and it is also played in Bhailah Pyakhan (Bhairab Dance).


Kaha resembles Ponga. It is also known as Indra Baja and it is believed to be invented at the time of Manju Shree. It is played with Naya Khin In many festivals nd also playd in funeral processions. There is a typical caste, called Kabuja, who play Kaha.


Nekoo or horn instrument is the oldest form of musical instruments in the globe. It is played during Gunla month. There are various types of Nekoo, Chatti Nekoo, Thika Nekoo, for instance.


Sankha or konch is an ancient instrument. Playing of Sankha indicates starting of any new work. Sankha is played in 'MahGhah Wonegu' in dec-jan month. It is also played in different worships.